A Commentary on Lysias, Speeches 1-11
S. C. Todd
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Lysias was the leading Athenian speech-writer of the generation (403-380 BC) following the Peloponnesian War, and his speeches form a leading source for all aspects of the history of Athenian society during this period. The speeches are widely read today, not least because of their simplicity of linguistic style. This simplicity is often deceptive, however, and one of the aims of this commentary is to help the reader assess the rhetorical strategies of each of the speeches and the often highly tendentious manipulation of argument. This volume includes the text itself (reproduced from Carey's OCT and apparatus criticus), with a facing translation. Each speech receives an extensive introduction, covering general questions of interpretation. In the lemmatic section of the commentary, individual phrases are examined in detail, providing a close reading of the Greek text. To maximize accessibility, the Greek lemmata are accompanied by translation, and individual Greek terms are mostly transliterated. This is the first part of a projected multi-volume commentary on the speeches and fragments, which will be the first full commentary on Lysias in modern times.
would seem to make this extremely unlikely. The possibility that the speech was written by Lysias as logographos for delivery by that year’s selected orator would seem equally implausible, however, not least because we would expect such a person to have been chosen at least partly on the basis of his ability to produce an appropriate speech. These may however be false questions, as is argued by Dover (cited at p. 164 n. 68 below), who notes the attractiveness of the genre to a skilled orator, and
the opportunity of writing for any type of legal case. This is not so obvious to the modern reader of Antiphon, Isaios and Deinarkhos, where what survives is only a portion of their output, focusing for each orator on a particular group of trials or legal procedures. But the corpus of Lysias, even 8 The extent and signiﬁcance of this phenomenon in Cicero’s speeches is discussed from various perspectives in J. F. G. Powell & J. J. Paterson (2004): see e.g. the editors’ introduction (at p. 8 and
. . . κα . . . (although perfectly clear) is not a literary phrase, so on balance I would tend to locate it rather closer to that placed in the mouth of Euphiletos’ wife at §12 than to the highly formal words given to Euphiletos himself at §18 and §25.38 Halbertsma (1862: 3) and Cobet (1863: p. xiv), for instance, both excised ανθρωπο , with the former explaining that it breaks up the ﬂow of the sentence; but as Frohberger (1868: 175) and Groeneboom (1924: 296) pointed out, this would create
but which could also be used against rapists. Possibilities include the dike¯ blabe¯s (private prosecution for damage, in view of the phrase διπλ ν . . . τ ν βλα´βην in 77 He also makes the important point that the law did not say ‘pallake¯ who is herself free’ (Harrison 1968–71.i: 164 n. 2). 78 My translation here follows Carey’s punctuation: previous editors read ‘if the lawgiver had had any more severe punishment available in the case of married women, he would have imposed it’. 79 Thus S. G.
the laws are repeatedly personiﬁed, with unusually metaphorical language: they ‘have not only acquitted me of crime, but have actually commanded me to exact this penalty’ (§34); ‘when we are uncertain in a situation, we can go to the law to ﬁnd out what we should do’ (§35); if he is convicted, ‘[everyone will know that] we must say good-bye to the laws’ (§36). For the high view which Lysias takes of the law here—itself of course a function of his case—see Bateman (1958b). Throughout the speech