Architecture Principles: The Cornerstones of Enterprise Architecture (The Enterprise Engineering Series)
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Enterprises, from small to large, evolve continuously. As a result, their structures are transformed and extended continuously. Without some means of control, such changes are bound to lead to an overly complex, uncoordinated and heterogeneous environment that is hard to manage and hard to adapt to future changes. Enterprise architecture principles provide a means to direct transformations of enterprises. As a consequence, architecture principles should be seen as the cornerstones of any architecture.
In this book, Greefhorst and Proper focus on the role of architecture principles. They provide both a theoretical and a practical perspective on architecture principles. The theoretical perspective involves a brief survey of the general concept of principle as well as an analysis of different flavors of principles. Architecture principles are regarded as a specific class of normative principles that direct the design of an enterprise, from the definition of its business to its supporting IT. The practical perspective on architecture principles is concerned with an approach to the formulation of architecture principles, as well as their actual use in organizations. To illustrate their use in practice, several real-life cases are discussed, an application of architecture principles in TOGAF is included, and a catalogue of example architecture principles is provided.
With this broad coverage, the authors target students and researchers specializing in enterprise architecture or business information systems, as well as practitioners who want to understand the foundations underlying their practical daily work.
can be made, yielding the essential requirements that should e.g. be addressed by an enterprise architecture. 3.5.2 Drivers as Motivation for Architecture Principles Based on the sources mentioned above, as well as our own experiences in practice, we propose the following types of drivers for the formulation of architecture principles: Goals & objectives targets that stakeholders seek to meet, many of these will be embedded in the strategy of the enterprise. Values fundamental beliefs shared
Transformation This attribute indicates whether this is a baseline (current) architecture principle or target (desired) architecture principle. A current architecture principle is one that is reverse engineered from the current practice in the organization. Quality attributes The Extended ISO 9126 standard provides a useful list of quality attributes that are clustered into: functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability. Meta-level This indicates whether the
architecture principles. When implications for architecture principles defined earlier are not yet defined, they should be revisited and the question should be asked: “what does the architecture principle statement imply?”. Derivation lends itself well for a collaborative approach, in the form of a workshop. In particular a brainstorm technique works well since it stimulates the creativity of participants. You simply ask the participants to look at a specific driver and then answer the questions
able to apply them, and translate them to artifacts downstream. On the other hand, domain knowledge is needed in order to identify and/or validate architecture principles. This may seem obvious, but in practice both forms of knowledge are often insufficiently addressed in the implementation of the architecture. Either not enough effort is spent on the dissemination of the architecture, or the domain knowledge and experience of professionals impacted by the architecture is insufficient. The latter
for success. On the other hand, careful planning is necessary to ensure that the architect delivers in time. Architects should understand that they need to deliver added value, and deliver this added value timely. Although this is not a book on enterprise architecture development in general, we do want to provide some additional guidance in how to apply architecture principle development. We especially want to provide assistance in how the type of architecture, the architecture maturity of the