Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering

Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering

Language: English

Pages: 388

ISBN: 184800043X

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This book gathers chapters from some of the top international empirical software engineering researchers focusing on the practical knowledge necessary for conducting, reporting and using empirical methods in software engineering. Topics and features include guidance on how to design, conduct and report empirical studies. The volume also provides information across a range of techniques, methods and qualitative and quantitative issues to help build a toolkit applicable to the diverse software development contexts

















process so that the observer can understand the mental process going on. Such protocols are limited by the comfort level of the subject and 38 C.B. Seaman their ability to articulate their thoughts. A good software engineering example of this technique is the work of von Mayrhauser and Vans (1996), in which software maintainers were asked to verbalize their thought processes while working on understanding source code. The data was collected by audio- and video-taping the sessions. Another

particularly prone to producing unreliable results. Currently, the method is widely used, e.g., in sociological studies, market research, product planning, political campaigning, defining business services, and in system usability studies (Baker, 1991; Edmunds, 1991; Morgan, 1997; Neter and Waksberg, 1964; Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990; Rubin, 1994; Widdows et al., 1991). Focus groups can be used either as a stand-alone research method or in combination with other research methods, e.g. with

video and sound, accurate voice recognition, and videoconferencing. We expect that the recent developments in IP-based multi-party video and audio conferencing tools will bring online practice forward in the next 5 years. Many end-users are already more familiar than business people with the utilization of web-cameras, Skype and Messenger conversations and conferences. 5.4. Summary of focus group comparisons Researchers utilizing focus groups should weigh the benefits and drawbacks of these four

measure what it claims to measure. Validity is a multifaceted concept; while it is conventional to talk about different types of validity, they are all aspects of one underlying concept. (Note that the concepts of internal and external validity apply to experiments rather than measurements.) Content validity is the degree to which the metric reflects the domain it is intended to measure. For example, one would not expect a measure of program complexity to be based on whether the program’s

generalization to simultaneous comparison of more than two samples is the (one-way) analysis of variance (ANOVA), with its F-test. Both of these are parametric tests based on asymptotic approximations to Normal distributions. While the two-sample t-test is remarkably resistant to violations of its assumptions (e.g., skewed data), the analysis of variance is not as robust. In general, for small samples or skewed data non-parametric tests are much preferred; most univariate parametric tests have

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