Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series)
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The ancient Greeks were not only the founders of western philosophy, but the actual term "philosophy" is Greek in origin, most likely dating back to the late sixth century BC. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid, and Thales are but a few of the better-known philosophers of ancient Greece. During the amazingly fertile period running from roughly the middle of the first millennium BC to the middle of the first millennium AD, the world saw the rise of science, numerous schools of thought, and—many believe—the birth of modern civilization.
This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy covers the history of Greek philosophy through a chronology, an introductory essay, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1500 cross-referenced entries on important philosophers, concepts, issues, and events. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Greek philosophy.
the supporters of Hippolytus rallied and elected him as Bishop of Rome, or if you like “antipope.” In 222, Callistus died and was succeeded by Pontianus, and Hippolytus was reconciled to the Church. Both Hippolytus and Pontianus were exiled to Sardinia by the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, who was less friendly to Christians than his predecessor. They died in exile, and today Hippolytus (Hippolyte), Callistus (Calixte), and Pontian are counted as saints by the Church, the two exiles as Martyrs. 30 •
apeiron) in the Philebus led to more elaborate conceptual structures based on this contrast in Neoplatonic philosophy. The identification of “The One” with the Form of the Good, on the one hand, and indefinite multiplicity with matter and absence of good, on the other, lends a negative evaluative slant to the concept of “indefiniteness” in some late Greek thinkers. APODEIXIS. Exposition, demonstration, proof. In the Phaedo, at 73a, Cebes asks Socrates for apodeixeis that the soul ( psyche¯ ) has
appears as a character himself in Plato’s Symposium, where he is represented as presenting an especially vivid myth designed to explain various sexual preferences. It is likely that Plato was influenced by Aristophanes’ dramatic techniques in his composition of the dialogues. ARISTOTLE OF STAGIRA (384–322 BCE). Ancient Stagira was on the coast of the Chalcidike, northwest of Mount Athos; there is a modern village of Stagira inland. Aristotle’s father, Nicomachus, was court physician of the
in line with the pre-Platonic traditions. That is, he distinguishes justice as fair shares from legality and then establishes each on what he takes to be an appropriate footing. Starting from the Pythagorean idea of proportionality, he gives some structure to the idea of fair distribution, and like Heraclitus, he supposes that there is one universal law that is in a way the basis of legislated law (EN V.7). The Epicureans argued that justice derived from social utility: “Justice was never
most circumstances this is not problematic, but if hormē comes into conflict with reason, that causes problems, and if a hormē is excessive, it becomes a pathos. That, for the Stoics, is to be avoided. HOSIOTĒS. Piety, holiness. This “virtue” (aretē) is examined by Socrates in Plato’s Euthyphro. Socrates was tried and convicted for “impiety” on the putative grounds that he did not believe in the Gods of the state but had introduced new and alien daimones. The hosion is that which is sanctioned by