Inductive Reasoning: Experimental, Developmental, and Computational Approaches

Inductive Reasoning: Experimental, Developmental, and Computational Approaches

Language: English

Pages: 376

ISBN: 0521672449

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Inductive reasoning is everyday, intuitive reasoning; it contrasts with deductive or logical reasoning. Inductive reasoning is much more prevalent than deductive reasoning, yet there has been much less research on inductive reasoning. Using contributions from the leading researchers in the field, the interdisciplinary approach of this book is relevant to those interested in psychology (including cognitive and developmental psychology), decision-making, philosophy, computer science, and education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------All mammals require Vitamin K for the liver to function. Hippos require Vitamin K for the liver to function. (12) Hamsters require Vitamin K for the liver to function. --------------------------------------------------------All mammals require Vitamin K for the liver to function. The subjects judged arguments like (12) to be stronger than arguments like (11), in response to the greater diversity of hippos and hamsters compared to hippos and

P1: IBE CUFX144-Feeney 0 521 85648 5 July 19, 2007 B. Rehder 88 90 High Similarity Generalization Rating 0521672443c04 80 Medium Similarity Low Similarity 70 60 50 40 Many Few None figure 4.1. Number of dependents of novel property. Results from Hadjichristidis et al. (2004), Experiment 2. target category not on the basis of any one characteristic of the feature (e.g., its centrality), but rather on the basis of one’s beliefs about the causal laws which relate the feature to those

Qb) involve only probability. They include the following: (a) As Prob (Qa) approaches 1, Prob (Qc : Qa, Qb) approaches Prob (Qc : Qb). Likewise, as Prob (Qb) approaches 1, Prob (Qc : Qa, Qb) approaches Prob (Qc : Qa). (b) As Prob (Qa) and Prob (Qb) both approach 1, Prob (Qc : Qa, Qb) approaches Prob (Qc ). 6:53 P1: d 0521672443c06 CUFX144-Feeney 0 521 85648 5 144 July 20, 2007 S. Blok, D. Osherson, and D. L. Medin (c) Other things equal, as Prob (Qa) and Prob (Qb) both decrease, Prob (Qc

Gap2 to apply equally well to heterogeneous collections of elementary arguments (involving a multiplicity of predicates). .    It is easy to envision extensions of Gap2 beyond elementary arguments [as defined in (3)]. For example, the conditional probability associated with a general-conclusion argument like Rats have retractable claws. Squirrels have retractable claws. All rodents have retractable claws. might be computed as the minimum of the conditional probabilities for

longer needed. Thus, for n = 6, the Q(o i ) might correspond to the following: Hawks have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. Eagles have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. Parakeets have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. (16) Cardinals have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. Geese have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. Ducks have muscle-to-fat ratio at least 10-to-1. Closing the six statements under boolean operators yields logically complex statements like the following: (17)

Download sample

Download