International Encyclopedia Of Systems And Cybernetics
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The second edition of the International Encyclopaedia of Systems and Cybernetics provides, once again, a complete overview of the state of Cybernetics and its development since its beginnings more then fifty years ago. Many of the events around the worldwide during recent years can be better understood by applying instruments belonging to system theory and cybernetics. Thus, the function of neural networks as a model of the interaction of many single elements in one coherent action can be applied to other social interactions and communication schemes: from the building of insect states, to the spreading of epidemics or the course of a stock market crash. This Encyclopaedia contains the widely known basic concept as well as detailed information on many sections of the field. Most of this knowledge resulted from hundreds of lectures given at international und national congresses, and is made easily accessible to a broad public as well as to the majority of scientists for the first time here. The work contains almost 4,000 entries in alphabetical order with numerous citations by hundreds of authors. Over 1,500 special references to and details of societies for Cybernetics around the world, and leading professional journals complete this presentation. Above all, the number of references in French, Italian, German and many other languages has risen considerably compared with the first edition. The International Encyclopaedia of Systems and Cybernetics is an essential aid for scientists, librarians and students in many fields: e.g. philosophy, economics, ecology, history, politology, sociology and communication science. With its broad scientific approach, this work can make a significant contribution to the improvement of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary exchange. Equally, this encyclopaedia will be of interest to executives working in business, politics and society.
the group. 0976 DOMAIN Of ATTRACTION υ ~ 21 "A region in a state space description of a system within which the system behavior is localized indefinitely unless there is a change in system structure or a large exogenous disturbance" (T.F.H. ALLEN & T.B. STARR, 1982, p.266). This definition corresponds to a regional and temporary specific stability cycle within a more global one. Domains of attraction have boundaries (separators) corresponding to their influence limits. They correspond to the
information has been added on the main systemic organizations in the world. How the work is ordered and presented The encyclopedia was constructed by progressive accretion, "reaping" terms corresponding to models and concepts from many and very different sources. A curious result emerged spontaneously: a number of terms and expressions started to form clusters in the two following ways: - "Blocks" of concepts corresponding to specific theories, as for example "Catastrophe theory",
energies overcome special limiting factors, such as material shortages, poisons or the seasonal fluctuations. Finally, special energies may be required to pump out excess wastes. (1971, p.88). However, homeostasis is merely the behavior of dynamically stable systems, generally mature ones. Systems in course of differentiation, dissipative structuration, bifurcation, emergence, etc... are definitely not homeostatic, and the use of the concept in these cases lead to gross misunderstandings. This
flag, the Ying and Yang symbol, etc. Some icons in history have been used with well defined purpose of political and psychological manipulation, as for example the svastika or the hammer and sickle. The icon has always a diagramatic character (p.181) and "partakes of some more or less overt character of its object" (p.252). As such, PEIRCE considers that it somehow has the character of a fallacy, or a metaphor. This is important for systemics, in order never to forget that "the map is not the
relation between two types of living systems. When two species are in such a relation, one species may eliminate the other. A variety of antibiosis is allopathy, where a species produces some toxic substance which impedes other species to establish or maintain themselves. ^discipline oriented 0130-0138 APPRECIATIVE SYSTEM 0130 ANTICHAOS 21 A process through which "some very disordered systems spontaneously "crystallize" into a high degree of order" (After St. KAUFFMAN 1991, p.64) According