Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence (Multilingual Matters)
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Foreign and second language teaching should prepare learners to use a language with fluency and accuracy, and also to speak with people who have different cultural identities, social values and behaviours. This text aims to define precisely what competencies are required, how these can be included in teachers' objectives and methods, and how the ability to communicate across cultural differences can be assessed.
francophonie' (R. Leblanc, 1990: 10). Although there is no explicit statement about attitudes towards francophone Canadians, it is evident in recommen- Page 25 dations for pedagogy that there is an intention to create more harmonious relationships: A un niveau avancé une prise de conscience des préjugés dominants peut être bénéfique. II s'agira avant tout de mettre en valeur le caractère exagéré des stéréotypes, non de forcer des attitudes positives à l'égard des francophones. II ne faut pas
'intercultural speaker', and makes them different from a native speaker. Intercultural Communication in Operation The intention in this chapter so far has been to discuss intercultural communication at a generalisable level of abstraction. I have largely avoided illustrations, though these often help to clarify an argument. I have Page 39 even avoided, as far as possible, reference to a 'culture', preferring instead the phrase 'beliefs, meanings and behaviours', in order not to commit the
this link with political education, Doyé makes explicit the evaluative dimension which descriptions of knowledge, skills and attitudes frequently ignore. For, although attitudes are often included in statements of aims, they are defined in terms of readiness for engagement with otherness and the reduction of prejudice. The notion of an 'evaluative orientation' also includes appropriate 'unprejudiced' attitudes but goes further, by acknowledging the tendency to evaluate cultures, often through
faire). There is no guarantee that success on one occasion means success on a later occasion, which might be more complex. The situation is made more difficult because savoir faire is probably best assessed through analysis of performance by the learners themselves, retrospectively. It is extremely demanding to ask the learner to reflect on the degree of complexity of the interaction in order to determine a level of success against a criterion-description of a threshold. Documentation of
Kramsch, C. (1993) Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kramsch, C. (in press) The privilege of the intercultural speaker. In M. Byram and M. Fleming (eds) Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kramsch, C. (1993) Language study as border study: Experiencing difference. European Journal of Education 28 (3), 349-358. Le Page, R.B. and Tabouret-Keller, A. (1985) Acts of Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University