The Basic Works of Aristotle (Modern Library Classics)
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Preserved by Arabic mathematicians and canonized by Christian scholars, Aristotle’s works have shaped Western thought, science, and religion for nearly two thousand years. Richard McKeon’s The Basic Works of Aristotle–constituted out of the definitive Oxford translation and in print as a Random House hardcover for sixty years–has long been considered the best available one-volume Aristotle. Appearing in paperback at long last, this edition includes selections from the Organon, On the Heavens, The Short Physical Treatises, Rhetoric, among others, and On the Soul, On Generation and Corruption, Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Poetics in their entirety.
the same actualization, provided the actualizations are not described in the same way, but are related as what can act to what is acting. (3) Nor is it necessary that the teacher should learn, (10) even if to act and to be acted on are one and the same, provided they are not the same in definition (as ‘raiment’ and ‘dress’), but are the same merely in the sense in which the road from Thebes to Athens and the road from Athens to Thebes are the same, as has been explained above.4 For it is not
implied in this argument, Cf. Physics 190b 24, 192a 1 ff. 85 sc. having pores, all of which are ‘full’. 86 i. e. the body will still be impenetrable, even if the pores as such (as channels) are distinguished in thought from what fills them. For in fact the pores are always ‘full’ and the body is a plenum throughout—though perhaps not a ‘uniform’ plenum. 87 ‘Big’ is a relative term and may include a void in any degree bigger than the infinitesimal. 88 viz. to express such lines of greater
roughness or smoothness, and any other such properties of matter as there may be. The second degree of composition is that by which the homogeneous parts of animals, (20) such as bone, flesh, and the like, are constituted out of the primary substances. The third and last stage is the composition which forms the heterogeneous parts, such as face, hand, and the rest. Now the order of actual development and the order of logical existence are always the inverse of each other. (25) For that which is
discussed—whether sensible substances alone should be said to exist or others also besides them, (15) and whether these others are of one kind or there are several classes of substances, as is supposed by those who believe both in Form and in mathematical objects intermediate between these and sensible things.5 Into these questions, then, as we say, we must inquire, and also (5) whether our investigation is concerned only with substances or also with the essential attributes of substances.6
Perhaps each of these statements will become clearer in the following way. Suppose the consequents of A are designated by B, the antecedents of A by C, attributes which cannot possibly belong to A by D. Suppose again that the attributes of E are designated by F, (15) the antecedents of E by G, and attributes which cannot belong to E by H. If then one of the Cs should be identical with one of the Fs, A must belong to all E: for F belongs to all E, and A to all C, consequently A belongs to all E.