The Fall of the Athenian Empire (A New History of the Peloponnesian War)
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In the fourth and final volume of his magisterial history of the Peloponnesian War, Donald Kagan examines the period from the destruction of Athens' Sicilian expedition in September of 413 B.C. to the Athenian surrender to Sparta in the spring of 404 B.C. Through his study of this last decade of the war, Kagan evaluates the performance of the Athenian democracy as it faced its most serious challenge. At the same time, Kagan assesses Thucydides' interpretation of the reasons for Athens’ defeat and the destruction of the Athenian Empire.
Kagan, Outbreak, 387-389; cf. , however, Lewis, Sparta and Persia, 60, n. 70. 8 ' 3 · 34· 843 . 3 1 . 8'Eddy, CP LXVIII ( 1 97 3), 255-256. AFTER THE SICILIAN DISASTER 19 "Though many envoys had come to him, they did not say the same things. If they wanted to say anything that was clear they should send men to him in the company of the Persian messenger. "86 Whatever the problems of communication may have been, there can be no doubt of what the Spartans wanted. As early as 430 they had sent a
older Persian policy of maintaining peace with Athens that dated from mid-century? Thucydides tells us that both satraps had lately been pressed by the Great King once again to collect tribute from the Greek cities in their provinces. The king plainly was also holding his satraps responsible for the payment of arrears of tribute, which they had been unable to collect from the Greek cities because of the Athenians. 1 8 Both, therefore, hoped to weaken the Athe nian power and remove Athens' hold
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some other Spartan friend sent him warning as soon as the decision was made. ' 5 In any case, he got the news of his condemnation well ' z " 8·4 3 · 3 · "These are the questions that Hatzfeld (Alcibiade, 2 2 5) suggests the suspicious PeI oponnesian forces were asking. 148. 26. 3 . " There i s a romantic ancient tradition (justin 5 . 2 . 5) that the warning came from Agis' wife, Timaea. Thucydides does not make clear just when Astyochus received the order and Alcibiades the warning. S. Van de
constitutional point of view. He rightly dismisses Alcibiades as not deserving such a designation and much less persuasively argues against Theramenes' right to the title. He says nothing, how ever, about Thrasybulus, which is a serious omission. The evidence makes it clear that some Athenians favored oligarchy unequivocally, others would brook no change what ever, and still others stood between these two rigid positions. This third group was inevitably more varied than the other two, and its